The Seljukian turkmen
WHO ARE THE TURKMEN?
The Turkmen are originally from the ancient Oguz Turkic tribes of Central Asia that migrated to different parts of the world, particulary Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey. Historians believe the first Turkmen settled in Iraq, then the southern part of Mesopotamia around 3500bc, where an ancient Sumerian civilization of Turkic tribes was located.The Turkmen have played a great role in Iraq’s and Iran’s history. Before the Islamic conquest in the early part of the seventh century, the Turkmen lived in densely populated settlements throughout Iraq. Badikli and Bankiya were the largest of these ancient communities. Located near the Euphrates River, they were administered by Baslukhan, a prominent Turkmen leader.Over the countries, the Turkmen established many dynasties and states in Iraq, Iran, Turkey and other countries. The Oguz tribes that converted to Islam became known as Turkmen. Having earned a great reputation as disciplined warriors, 2,000 Turkmen archers were recruited into the army of Ubaydullah Bin Ziad in the mid-seventh century in Basra in southern Iraq during the Ummayids (Ummawiyeen) era (AD 661-750). Hajjaj Bin Yousuf Al Thakafi, another Ummayids commander, had settled 25,000 Turkmen warriors in Badra in eastern Iraq to defend the borders of the country. The Turkmen also had a great role in Iraq military during the Abbasid era 9AD 750-12580. Thousands of Turkmen soldiers settled in the city of Sammara, which was built for the troops and their families.The largest number of Turkmen to move into Iraq occurred when the Seljuk army under the command of Sultan Turgul Bey entered Baghdad in 1055. Another important age of migration occurred during the Ottoman Empire, Which began with the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent and continued for more than four centuries.
POPULATION AND CONTEMPORARY SETTLEMENT AREAS