Books
Books

  1. Rumlu-(Anatolian)
This tribe was composed of the villager Shiite people from he districts of Koyulhisar (Koylahisar) and Karahisar (Şebin) connected to Sivas and the other regions of Sivas and the regions of Tokat-Amasya. The most famous beys of this community were Nur Ali Caliph, Pirî Bey and Div Sultan. The original name of Div Sultan was Div Ali (Bey). It has been observed that he was from the people of Tokat region. As it can be understood, Div Sultan had participated in the foundation of the state. His feoff (tiyul) was Saf Çukuru (Sad Hollow). He was promoted to the rank of the emir of staff officers due to his personal capabilities. Apart from him, we are also familiar with Badıncan (Patlıcan) Sultan (Erdebil governor) from Anatolia, Kazak Sultan, Sofiyan Caliph and Aygud Bey.

Ustachalu (Ustachlu)
Actually, this tribe was connected to the big community called as Ulu Yörük (High Nomadic Tribe) that lived in the region of particularly Sivas, Amasya-Tokat and some of its clans were expanded towards Kirsehir. Ustacalu people constituted most of the Anatolian disciples of Sheikh Cuneyd and Haydar. …

It is beyond doubt that the tribe had taken its name from as person called as Ustaca (like master or maybe, Usta Hajii). In the year of 906 (1500), Mirza Bey’s son, Muhammed Bey had entered the presence of Shah Ismail with two hundreds of cavalrymen in his command in Erzincan. This Muhammed Bey was from the lineage of Ustaca. In addition, this Muhammed Bey was the famous Ustacaoglu Muhammed Han wh commanded the left wing of the Safevi army in Çaldiran. We are familiar with the son of Muhammed Han who was called as Kiliç Han. The other Muhammed Bey from Ustacalu people who had been the chief butler of Shah Ismail was appointed as the emir of the staff officers with the title of Çayan Sultan in the year of 920 (1514). Therefore, upon his death in the year of 929 (1523), his son, Bayezid Sultan replaced his position. Similarly, Saru Pire from Ustacalu people who was the Chief Guard had died in the Çaldiran War. The other emirs that had been from this tribe in this period were Çayan Sultan’s brother, Köpek Sultan (his real name was Mustafa), Karınca Sultan, Menteşe Sultan (the brother of the Chief Guard, Suru Pire from Şeyhli nomad group), Bedir Bey, Kürd Bey, Kara Han’s son Abdullah Han, Kadı Bey, Sofu oglu Ahmed Sultan (Governor of Kirman), Hamza Sultan with the nickname of Kazuk, Taceddin Bey, etc. Ustacalu Hızır Aga had given his horse to Shah Ismail and he helped the flight of Shah Ismail from the battlefield. Therefore, Ustacalu people constituted the principal tribe among the tribes that founded the state.Tekelü
As it has been stated for several times above, these people were essentially the Turkmens from the region of Antalya that was called as Teke Province or only Teke. There were also some people from Hamid-province (the region of Isparta-Burdur) and Menteşe province (the province of Mugla) among them. Besides that Tekelu people had played an important role in the state, they had gained power through the arrival of 15.000 people to Iran as a result of the rebellion of Shah Kulu Baba in the year of 916 (1510-1511). Tekelu Saru Ali who had played an important role in the foundation of the state had been assigned to the post of seal keeping. Tekelu seal-keeper Saru Ali was sent against Abdi Bey from Damascus and Kurdish Sarim in the year of 912 (1506); however, he could not attain any success and he was killed in the fight. Another Tekelu bey that had played role in the foundation of the state was Burun Sultan and he was Emir of Meşhed in that period. Apart from the emirs stated above, we know that Tekelü Yegen Sultan, Çuha (Çuka) Sultan, Reis Bey and Şerefeddin Bey were in the service of Shah ısmail before the arrival of Shah Kulu Tekelu people. Moreover, Shah Ismail who heard of the penetration of the Tekelu people of Shah Kulu Baba into the Iranian lands had sent Cuha Sultan in order to acquire information about their situations. However, the principal beys of Tekeli people in this period were Burun Sultan, Çuha (Çuka) Sultan, Karaca Sultan (Governor of Hamedan), Ahi Sultan, and Çirkin Hasan, etc. It is probable that these principal beys had come to Iran before the arrival of Tekelu people of Shah Kulu.

Şamlu (Damascus)
Şamlu was the general name of the nomadic groups that lived in Uzun Yayla in the north of Sivas in summers and in Aleppo-Ayintab (Gaziantep) in the winters and that were called as Aleppo Turkmens. This general name was also used in Anatolia before the period of the Safevi State. Şamlu people had been among the oldest disciples of Erdebil religious order since the period of Sheikh Cuneyd. Huseyin Bey who was one of the principal caliphs of Sheikh Haydar was a member of Şamlu tribe. Huseyin Bey who had born the title of lala (tutor) upon the foundation of the state had been appointed as the emir of the staff officers as it was stated before. In the year of 914, Shah Ismail appointed Reştli Tacik Emir Necm-i Zerger as the regent of the sultanate. Therefore, he had estranged the Turkish emirs from the financial affairs. As it can be understood from this example, Shah Ismail’s kindness towards some of the emirs that had had great contributions in the foundation of the state had decreased gradually in the course of time. In the following year, Shah Ismail had dismissed the Tutor Huseyin Bey from the post of the emir of staff officers. Then, he assigned him with the governorship of a place near Shirvan and upon the conquest of Khorasan in the year of 916 (1510-1511), he had appointed him as the Governor of Herat. Tutor Huseyin Bey who was the oldest member of this religious order and one of the two closest emirs of Shah Ismail had died in Çaldiran War as we have observed above.

Another great emir from Şamlu tribe was Abdi Bey. We have stated above that Abdi Bey had joined Shah Ismail in Erzincan together with his three hundreds of cavalrymen. Upon the foundation of the state, Abdi Bey had been assigned as the (chief) ditch digger. He had died in the war that he had fought with Kurdish Sarim in the year of 912 (“506-1507). We do not have any information about the nomad group that Abdi Bey was a member of. We are familiar with Durmuş and Huseyin, the two sons of Abdi Bey. The first one had been promoted in a short period and he had taken his place among the most reliable emirs. It has been pointed out above that Durmuş Han had rejected the proposal of Ustacalu Muhammed Han to attack to the enemies without giving them any opportunity to rest and to take up positions of war in the Çaldiran War. Durmuş Han was appointed as the Governor of Herat in the place of Musullu Emir Han in the year of 929 (1522-1523) and he became the tutor of Şam Prince. Another emir from Şamlu was Zeynel Han. It has been observed that this person was the governor of Esterabad in the aforesaid period. Şamlu people had maintained their prestige from that date on.

Zulkadr (Dulkadir)
This tribe was composed of the branches of some nomad groups that lived in Dulkadir region and particularly in the region of Boz Ok within the site of Maraş and Boz Ok (Yozgat) that was said to include eighty thousands of families in Safevi resources. Dede Abdal Bey who was one of the closest disciples of Haydar who was Shah Ismail’s father was from this organisation. His title of “bey” like Şamlu Huseyin Bey even in that period indicates that he was a member of a noble group. Pursuant to the foundation of the state, we have observed that Abdal Bey was appointed as the chief guard. Afterwards, Abdal Bey who had been the governor of Savuc Bulag and Rey was dismissed from his post in the year of 915 (1509-1510). However, he was appointed to the governorship of the city of Merv that was conquered from Uzbeks in the following year. Upon the attack of Uzbek people in the year of 919 (1513-1514), Abdal Bey had left the city of Merv and run away. Due to this fault, the Safevi ruler had disguised Abdal Bey in woman clothes and he had showed him around the military encampment on a donkey. Due to probably the fact that he was one of the old and faithful emirs of the dynasty, he was not killed and he was appointed to his former post again. However, pursuant to this event, there is not any consideration mentioning about Dede Abdal Bey.

Another Dulkadir bey that had participated in the foundation of the state was Ilyas Bey who had been known with the nickname of Kecel Bey. When Shah Ismail conquered Farsi country in the year of 909, he had assigned Ilyas Bey as the governor of this wide region. However, he had killed him due to his fault in the following year. He also did the same thing to Suleyman Bey that he had assigned in his place. Upon these events, Afshar Mansur Bey was assigned as the governor of Shiraz. Mansur Bey was one of the closest emirs of Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan Bey while he was in Diyarbakir and he was assigned as the governor of Kuh Giluye upon the conquest of Iran. Mansur Bey who heard of the capture of Farsi region by Shah Ismail had put on the Shiite crown on his head. Thus, he could protect his feoff. However, the office of Mansur Bey as the governor of Shiraz had lasted for a short time and this region was assigned to Emet Bey (from Sari Şeyhlu nomad group) from Dulkadirli. Pursuant to this appointment, Emet Bey was called with the title of Halil Sultan. However, Halil Sultan was killed upon the allegation that he behaved indulgently in Çaldiran War. In his place, the Chief Guard, Izzeddin was appointed who was from Çiçekli nomad group of Dulkadirli tribe. His nickname was Ali Sultan. Zulkadr people had established dominion in Farsi region until the period of Shah Abbas. As it has been stated before, Mehmed and Ali, the sons of Shah Ruhi Bey who was the son of Dulkadirli Alauddevle that was killed in Diyarbakir were the supporters of Ismail. Upon the annexation of Dulkadir principality to the lands of Sehsuvar son Ali Bey in the year of 1515, some of Dulkadirli people got into the service of Shah Ismail.

Varsak
As it has been known, varsak was the name of Turkmen nomad groups in the region of Tarsus. We know that Sheikh Cuneyd had wandered around Varsak people and collected most of these people around him. Therefore, some of Varsak people had participated in the political activities of the Safevi State and they had played role in the foundation of the state. We have seen that Yusuf Bey who was the commander of Kemah castle and his assistant, Muhammed Bey and also their soldiers were Varsak people. Most of the Varsak people who had been in the service of Safevi State were included among the guards that were within the brigades of guards. Shah Ismail had sent the Varsak guard, Kara Uveys to Khorasan in order to notify the return of Selim from Iran. The fact that various varsak nomadic groups had adopted the Shiah Islam and emigrated from the regions of Tarsus and Adana to Iran in the period of Kanuni was registered within the Ottoman essay books in red ink. We are familiar with Kasim Caliph and Mustafa Bey from Varsak people that we have observed in the period of Tahmasb who was the successor of Ismail. Varsak people had some poems and folk sons peculiar to them and these were called as varsağı (some type of folk song). Varsaği songs were the poems and folk songs that were listened in a pleasant manner in the Safevi palace and among the Shiite beys. The familiarity of these varsaği songs in Istanbul and the varsaği songs sang by even Murad IV must have probably resulted from the high demand of these songs in Iran.

Çepni
It has been known that Çepni people was one of 24 Oguz tribes. It was one of the tribes that had played a very important role in the conquest and settlement of Anatolia. It has been observed that a crowded group of Çepni people were inclined to Shiite people and the Shiah Islam from of old. In the century XVI, a group of these people lived among Aleppo Turkmens and another important group lived among the tribe of Ulu Yörük within the region of Sivas, Tokat and Amasya. Similarly, a very crowded community pertaining to this tribe had lived in the region of Trebizond, Bayburt, Gumushane, Giresun and Canik (Ordu, Samsun). The Çepni people in the service of Safevi people were from this community and regions stated above.

Arabgirlü
As it is known, Arabgir is a district connected to Malatya today. It has been observed that some of the Shiite people of this district had hone to Iran. The leader of this tribe was Emir Ali Kulu (Kuli) Bey in the year of 929 (1523). Arabgirlü people had been included within the Şamlu tribe and they constituted a nomad group of this tribe.

Turgudlu
In our contemporary and reliable resources with an unknown author, it has been stated that there were some disciples from the people of Karaman province among those who had entered the presence of Ismail in Erzincan in the year of 906 (1500-1501). Actually, Shah Ismail had established a relative relationship with Karaman Ogullari. In the year of 918 (1512), Ismail had written a Turkish letter to Musa Bey from Turgut Ogullari that was the most reliable tribal family. In this letter, he had stated that all the works should be performed in accordance with the demands of Karamanli Ahmed Aga and the works should be notified upon the verbal agreement with him. We have observed Turgut Son Hasan Sultan among the emirs of Tahmasb after five years pursuant to the death of Shah Ismail (935=1528-1529). Hasan sultan had participated in the military expedition of the named ruler to Khorasan that was organised in the same year. In the work of Şikari titled as Karamanogullari History, it was explained that Pir Bayram who was the troop leader of Karaman Son Kasim Bey and Kökez Oglu who was one of his greatest emirs had gotten in the service of Shah Ismail together with six thousands of soldiers. Then, it was stated that they captured Tabriz in the name of Shah and Kökez (must be Oglu) and Pir Bayram were caught and killed in Khorasan war. These statements of Şikari had a doubtless assertion and value in confirmation that some of the beys and soldiers of Karaman Ogullari people had participated in the foundation of the Safevi State. Apart from Hasan Sultan, it has been observed that a bey named as Kasim Ali from Turgudogullari community was in the service of the Safevi State. Pir Huseyin Bey who was one of the principal emirs of Prince Bayezid that was the son of Kanuni was from Turgudogullari community. Pir Huseyin Bey had gone to Iran with Bayezid and pursuant to the murder of Bayezid, his life was spared.

Bozcalu
This was one of the nomadic groups that were connected to Aleppo Turkmens.

Acirlü
It has been understood that these people were the members of Aleppo Turkmens. One of the old and accurate copies of Fuzuli’s divan was reproduced in copy for a bey from this nomad group.

Hınıslu
It has been understood that Aygut Oglu Ilyas Bey that was one of the principal emirs of Sheikh Haydar was from this nomadic group. It has been rumoured that the Hinislu nomad group had Kurdish origins. However, the beys from this group had the Turkish names such as Aygut, Kara Güne, Deli Budak, etc. This situation indicates that this nomadic tribe had become Turkish in a strong manner despite the Non-Turkish origin.

Çemişkezeklü
The members of this nomad group were from the people of the district of Cemiskezek connected to Tunceli. It has been stated in the resources that this nomad tribe had also Kurdish origin. This nomad group had played an insignificant role.

The principal nomad groups and tribes that founded the Safevi State and constituted the main base and the major element of this state were composed of the groups and tribes stated above. The Safevi Shiite community that was composed of these nomad groups was a new Anatolian organisation. It was a community much more different than Ak-Koyunlu and Kara-Koyunlu States in respect of both the religious sects and political characteristics. Pursuant to the collapse of Kara-Koyunlu State, most or all of the nomad groups that were the members of this state were taken in the service of Ak-Koyunlu State. However, they could not acquire any first rank offices despite the fact that they had adopted the Shiah Islam. Of these people, it has been understood that Kaçar people had emigrated from the region of Boz-Ok (Yozgat) in Anatolia to the region of Gence towards the end of the century XV. In the year of 897 (1492), Ibe Sultan who was from the Ak-Koyunlu dynasty took Kaçar soldiers with him and he collaborated with Kazak Seyyidî Ali who was the governor of Alincak castle. Then, he declared Rustem who was the son of Maksud Bey that was Uzun Hasan Bey’s son. After he defeated Baysungur and Biçen oglu Suleyman Bey, he enthroned Rustem as the sovereign of the Akkoyunlu State. Ibe Sultan penetrated into Gilan with Kaçar soldiers in the following year.

He destroyed the country of Karkiya Mirza Ali and annihilated most of Gilan soldiers. The reason for these actions was that the aforesaid Karkiya Mirza Ali had annihilated some Bayindirli emirs in Kazvin and Rey and had destroyed Sultaniye. When Rustem Bey was defeated by Göde Ahmet Bey in the year of 902 (1496-1467), he had taken shelter in Kaçar Bey and he asked help from him. Although Kaçar Bey had helped Rustem, Rustem was caught in the fight that took place and he was killed. It is probable that Ziyad Bey who was one of the most ancient ancestors of Kaçar dynasty must have been the leader of these Kaçar people. We have seen Piri Bey from Kaçar people among the disciples of Sheikh Hayda. Piri Bey had participated in the wars that Ismail had fought against Shirvan Shah Ferruh Yasar and the Akkoyunlu Ruler Elvend and Sultan Murad and he had shown great bravery. Moreover, Shah Ismail had entitled him with the title of Toz Koparan (Raising the Dust) due to his courage. We do not have any information about Piri Bey since the year of 909 (1503-1504). It has been understood that he was not from Ziyad Ogullari family; in fact, he was from another nomad group of Kaçar tribe. Another meir from Kaçar people was Ece Sultan. Ece Sultan had defeated Yakub Bey’s son, Sultan Murad with few forces in his command in the year of 921 (1515) and he had been entitled with the name of Kudurmuş Sultan (Rabid Sultan) by the Safevi ruler. We are not familiar with any other beys from Kaçar tribe except for these two beys in the period of Shah Ismail. It has been observed that these two beys were not higher-rank officials. This situation can be expressed with the assumption that only some of Kaçar tribe that was a crowded and important tribe had participated in the activities of Ismail.

As for the Kamaranlu tribe, this nomad group had lived in Erran since the period of Kara-Koyunlu State. This tribe had taken its name from a bey named as Karaman. Accordingly, the aforesaid tribe must not have had any relation with Karaman in Anatolia. Bayram Bey and Rustem Bey who were the members of this tribe were the close fellows of Sheikh Haydar and Ismail. Pursuant to the foundation of the state, Bayram Bey was assigned as the bey of divan and upon the conquest of Khorasan, he was appointed as the governor of a wide province including Belh, Murgab, and Garcistan. He was killed in a war fought against Uzbek people in the year of 918 (1512). We are familiar with a son of Bayram Bey who was called as Muhammedi. He was killed in the war between Tekelu and Ustacalu people that took place in the year of 933 (1526-1527). Karamanli people had remained as a tribe of secondary significance during the entire Safevi history.

One of the two biggest tribes of Ak-koyunlu Nation was called as Musullu (the other was Pürnek). As it has been stated before, Musullu (from Mosul) Gulabi Bey’s son Emir Bey had come from the region of Diyarbakir in the course of a military expedition of Shah Ismail towards Dulkadirli country. He had entered the presence of Safevi ruler and worn the Shiite crown.

Shah Ismail who was fairly pleased with this jest had appointed him as the seal-keeper. Therefore, most of Musullu tribe had gotten into the service of Safevi state under the leadership of the grandsons of the famous bey of Uzun Hasan. There were the grandsons of Sofu Halil Bey among the Musullu beys that had been in the service of the Safevi State. Shah Ismail was married with a daughter of a Musullu bey and his eldest son, Tahmasb was born from this wedlock.

Shah Ismail appointed Tahmasb as the governor of Khorasan in the year of 1516. Then, he assigned Emir Bey as the tutor of his son under the title of khanate. Emir Han was dismissed from his post in the year of (1522) and he died in the same year. The feoff (koşun) of Emir Han was given to his brother, Ibrahim Han and this emir was appointed as the governor of Baghdad.

This Musullu Ibrahim Han had protected Fuzuli who was a famous poet from Bayat tribe in Baghdad. The Musullu tribe, Pürnek tribe and some other Ak-Koyunlu tribes (for example; Kazakhs) had all together constituted the tribe of Turkmen in the Safrvi resources. Since this tribe was alimented from the residuals of Ak-Koyunlu Nation in the Eastern Anatolia, it had gained a significance to the same degree with primarily the Shiite tribes and groups in the period of particularly Ismail II and Muhammed Hudabende. As for Afshar tribe; it has been known that Dana Muhammed Bey, Shah Ruh Bey and Sultan Ali Mirza were from this tribe in the period of Shah Ismail. Of these Afshar beys, Dana Muhammed Bey was shot with an arrow in the war fought against Seybek Han (1511) and he was killed thereof. The name of Shah Ruk Bey was mentioned in the second military expedition to Khorasan (1513). As for Sultan Ali Mirza; he had alleged that “I am the shah” in the Çaldiran battle and prevented the captivity and murder of Shah Ismail. The aforesaid beys had relations with Mansur Bey family.

It is beyond doubt that the tribe had taken its name from as person called as Ustaca (like master or maybe, Usta Hajii). In the year of 906 (1500), Mirza Bey’s son, Muhammed Bey had entered the presence of Shah Ismail with two hundreds of cavalrymen in his command in Erzincan. This Muhammed Bey was from the lineage of Ustaca. In addition, this Muhammed Bey was the famous Ustacaoglu Muhammed Han wh commanded the left wing of the Safevi army in Çaldiran. We are familiar with the son of Muhammed Han who was called as Kiliç Han. The other Muhammed Bey from Ustacalu people who had been the chief butler of Shah Ismail was appointed as the emir of the staff officers with the title of Çayan Sultan in the year of 920 (1514). Therefore, upon his death in the year of 929 (1523), his son, Bayezid Sultan replaced his position. Similarly, Saru Pire from Ustacalu people who was the Chief Guard had died in the Çaldiran War. The other emirs that had been from this tribe in this period were Çayan Sultan’s brother, Köpek Sultan (his real name was Mustafa), Karınca Sultan, Menteşe Sultan (the brother of the Chief Guard, Suru Pire from Şeyhli nomad group), Bedir Bey, Kürd Bey, Kara Han’s son Abdullah Han, Kadı Bey, Sofu oglu Ahmed Sultan (Governor of Kirman), Hamza Sultan with the nickname of Kazuk, Taceddin Bey, etc. Ustacalu Hızır Aga had given his horse to Shah Ismail and he helped the flight of Shah Ismail from the battlefield. Therefore, Ustacalu people constituted the principal tribe among the tribes that founded the state. <strong> Tekelü </strong> As it has been stated for several times above, these people were essentially the Turkmens from the region of Antalya that was called as Teke Province or only Teke. There were also some people from Hamid-province (the region of Isparta-Burdur) and Menteşe province (the province of Mugla) among them. Besides that Tekelu people had played an important role in the state, they had gained power through the arrival of 15.000 people to Iran as a result of the rebellion of Shah Kulu Baba in the year of 916 (1510-1511). Tekelu Saru Ali who had played an important role in the foundation of the state had been assigned to the post of seal keeping. Tekelu seal-keeper Saru Ali was sent against Abdi Bey from Damascus and Kurdish Sarim in the year of 912 (1506); however, he could not attain any success and he was killed in the fight. Another Tekelu bey that had played role in the foundation of the state was Burun Sultan and he was Emir of Meşhed in that period. Apart from the emirs stated above, we know that Tekelü Yegen Sultan, Çuha (Çuka) Sultan, Reis Bey and Şerefeddin Bey were in the service of Shah ısmail before the arrival of Shah Kulu Tekelu people. Moreover, Shah Ismail who heard of the penetration of the Tekelu people of Shah Kulu Baba into the Iranian lands had sent Cuha Sultan in order to acquire information about their situations. However, the principal beys of Tekeli people in this period were Burun Sultan, Çuha (Çuka) Sultan, Karaca Sultan (Governor of Hamedan), Ahi Sultan, and Çirkin Hasan, etc. It is probable that these principal beys had come to Iran before the arrival of Tekelu people of Shah Kulu. <em><strong> Şamlu (Damascus) </strong></em> Şamlu was the general name of the nomadic groups that lived in Uzun Yayla in the north of Sivas in summers and in Aleppo-Ayintab (Gaziantep) in the winters and that were called as Aleppo Turkmens. This general name was also used in Anatolia before the period of the Safevi State. Şamlu people had been among the oldest disciples of Erdebil religious order since the period of Sheikh Cuneyd. Huseyin Bey who was one of the principal caliphs of Sheikh Haydar was a member of Şamlu tribe. Huseyin Bey who had born the title of lala (tutor) upon the foundation of the state had been appointed as the emir of the staff officers as it was stated before. In the year of 914, Shah Ismail appointed Reştli Tacik Emir Necm-i Zerger as the regent of the sultanate. Therefore, he had estranged the Turkish emirs from the financial affairs. As it can be understood from this example, Shah Ismail’s kindness towards some of the emirs that had had great contributions in the foundation of the state had decreased gradually in the course of time. In the following year, Shah Ismail had dismissed the Tutor Huseyin Bey from the post of the emir of staff officers. Then, he assigned him with the governorship of a place near Shirvan and upon the conquest of Khorasan in the year of 916 (1510-1511), he had appointed him as the Governor of Herat. Tutor Huseyin Bey who was the oldest member of this religious order and one of the two closest emirs of Shah Ismail had died in Çaldiran War as we have observed above. Another great emir from Şamlu tribe was Abdi Bey. We have stated above that Abdi Bey had joined Shah Ismail in Erzincan together with his three hundreds of cavalrymen. Upon the foundation of the state, Abdi Bey had been assigned as the (chief) ditch digger. He had died in the war that he had fought with Kurdish Sarim in the year of 912 (“506-1507). We do not have any information about the nomad group that Abdi Bey was a member of. We are familiar with Durmuş and Huseyin, the two sons of Abdi Bey. The first one had been promoted in a short period and he had taken his place among the most reliable emirs. It has been pointed out above that Durmuş Han had rejected the proposal of Ustacalu Muhammed Han to attack to the enemies without giving them any opportunity to rest and to take up positions of war in the Çaldiran War. Durmuş Han was appointed as the Governor of Herat in the place of Musullu Emir Han in the year of 929 (1522-1523) and he became the tutor of Şam Prince. Another emir from Şamlu was Zeynel Han. It has been observed that this person was the governor of Esterabad in the aforesaid period. Şamlu people had maintained their prestige from that date on. <strong><em> Zulkadr (Dulkadir) </em></strong> This tribe was composed of the branches of some nomad groups that lived in Dulkadir region and particularly in the region of Boz Ok within the site of Maraş and Boz Ok (Yozgat) that was said to include eighty thousands of families in Safevi resources. Dede Abdal Bey who was one of the closest disciples of Haydar who was Shah Ismail’s father was from this organisation. His title of “bey” like Şamlu Huseyin Bey even in that period indicates that he was a member of a noble group. Pursuant to the foundation of the state, we have observed that Abdal Bey was appointed as the chief guard. Afterwards, Abdal Bey who had been the governor of Savuc Bulag and Rey was dismissed from his post in the year of 915 (1509-1510). However, he was appointed to the governorship of the city of Merv that was conquered from Uzbeks in the following year. Upon the attack of Uzbek people in the year of 919 (1513-1514), Abdal Bey had left the city of Merv and run away. Due to this fault, the Safevi ruler had disguised Abdal Bey in woman clothes and he had showed him around the military encampment on a donkey. Due to probably the fact that he was one of the old and faithful emirs of the dynasty, he was not killed and he was appointed to his former post again. However, pursuant to this event, there is not any consideration mentioning about Dede Abdal Bey. Another Dulkadir bey that had participated in the foundation of the state was Ilyas Bey who had been known with the nickname of Kecel Bey. When Shah Ismail conquered Farsi country in the year of 909, he had assigned Ilyas Bey as the governor of this wide region. However, he had killed him due to his fault in the following year. He also did the same thing to Suleyman Bey that he had assigned in his place. Upon these events, Afshar Mansur Bey was assigned as the governor of Shiraz. Mansur Bey was one of the closest emirs of Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan Bey while he was in Diyarbakir and he was assigned as the governor of Kuh Giluye upon the conquest of Iran. Mansur Bey who heard of the capture of Farsi region by Shah Ismail had put on the Shiite crown on his head. Thus, he could protect his feoff. However, the office of Mansur Bey as the governor of Shiraz had lasted for a short time and this region was assigned to Emet Bey (from Sari Şeyhlu nomad group) from Dulkadirli. Pursuant to this appointment, Emet Bey was called with the title of Halil Sultan. However, Halil Sultan was killed upon the allegation that he behaved indulgently in Çaldiran War. In his place, the Chief Guard, Izzeddin was appointed who was from Çiçekli nomad group of Dulkadirli tribe. His nickname was Ali Sultan. Zulkadr people had established dominion in Farsi region until the period of Shah Abbas. As it has been stated before, Mehmed and Ali, the sons of Shah Ruhi Bey who was the son of Dulkadirli Alauddevle that was killed in Diyarbakir were the supporters of Ismail. Upon the annexation of Dulkadir principality to the lands of Sehsuvar son Ali Bey in the year of 1515, some of Dulkadirli people got into the service of Shah Ismail. <strong><em> Varsak </em></strong> As it has been known, varsak was the name of Turkmen nomad groups in the region of Tarsus. We know that Sheikh Cuneyd had wandered around Varsak people and collected most of these people around him. Therefore, some of Varsak people had participated in the political activities of the Safevi State and they had played role in the foundation of the state. We have seen that Yusuf Bey who was the commander of Kemah castle and his assistant, Muhammed Bey and also their soldiers were Varsak people. Most of the Varsak people who had been in the service of Safevi State were included among the guards that were within the brigades of guards. Shah Ismail had sent the Varsak guard, Kara Uveys to Khorasan in order to notify the return of Selim from Iran. The fact that various varsak nomadic groups had adopted the Shiah Islam and emigrated from the regions of Tarsus and Adana to Iran in the period of Kanuni was registered within the Ottoman essay books in red ink. We are familiar with Kasim Caliph and Mustafa Bey from Varsak people that we have observed in the period of Tahmasb who was the successor of Ismail. Varsak people had some poems and folk sons peculiar to them and these were called as varsağı (some type of folk song). Varsaği songs were the poems and folk songs that were listened in a pleasant manner in the Safevi palace and among the Shiite beys. The familiarity of these varsaği songs in Istanbul and the varsaği songs sang by even Murad IV must have probably resulted from the high demand of these songs in Iran. Çepni It has been known that Çepni people was one of 24 Oguz tribes. It was one of the tribes that had played a very important role in the conquest and settlement of Anatolia. It has been observed that a crowded group of Çepni people were inclined to Shiite people and the Shiah Islam from of old. In the century XVI, a group of these people lived among Aleppo Turkmens and another important group lived among the tribe of Ulu Yörük within the region of Sivas, Tokat and Amasya. Similarly, a very crowded community pertaining to this tribe had lived in the region of Trebizond, Bayburt, Gumushane, Giresun and Canik (Ordu, Samsun). The Çepni people in the service of Safevi people were from this community and regions stated above. Arabgirlü As it is known, Arabgir is a district connected to Malatya today. It has been observed that some of the Shiite people of this district had hone to Iran. The leader of this tribe was Emir Ali Kulu (Kuli) Bey in the year of 929 (1523). Arabgirlü people had been included within the Şamlu tribe and they constituted a nomad group of this tribe. Turgudlu In our contemporary and reliable resources with an unknown author, it has been stated that there were some disciples from the people of Karaman province among those who had entered the presence of Ismail in Erzincan in the year of 906 (1500-1501). Actually, Shah Ismail had established a relative relationship with Karaman Ogullari. In the year of 918 (1512), Ismail had written a Turkish letter to Musa Bey from Turgut Ogullari that was the most reliable tribal family. In this letter, he had stated that all the works should be performed in accordance with the demands of Karamanli Ahmed Aga and the works should be notified upon the verbal agreement with him. We have observed Turgut Son Hasan Sultan among the emirs of Tahmasb after five years pursuant to the death of Shah Ismail (935=1528-1529). Hasan sultan had participated in the military expedition of the named ruler to Khorasan that was organised in the same year. In the work of Şikari titled as Karamanogullari History, it was explained that Pir Bayram who was the troop leader of Karaman Son Kasim Bey and Kökez Oglu who was one of his greatest emirs had gotten in the service of Shah Ismail together with six thousands of soldiers. Then, it was stated that they captured Tabriz in the name of Shah and Kökez (must be Oglu) and Pir Bayram were caught and killed in Khorasan war. These statements of Şikari had a doubtless assertion and value in confirmation that some of the beys and soldiers of Karaman Ogullari people had participated in the foundation of the Safevi State. Apart from Hasan Sultan, it has been observed that a bey named as Kasim Ali from Turgudogullari community was in the service of the Safevi State. Pir Huseyin Bey who was one of the principal emirs of Prince Bayezid that was the son of Kanuni was from Turgudogullari community. Pir Huseyin Bey had gone to Iran with Bayezid and pursuant to the murder of Bayezid, his life was spared. Bozcalu This was one of the nomadic groups that were connected to Aleppo Turkmens. Acirlü It has been understood that these people were the members of Aleppo Turkmens. One of the old and accurate copies of Fuzuli’s divan was reproduced in copy for a bey from this nomad group. Hınıslu It has been understood that Aygut Oglu Ilyas Bey that was one of the principal emirs of Sheikh Haydar was from this nomadic group. It has been rumoured that the Hinislu nomad group had Kurdish origins. However, the beys from this group had the Turkish names such as Aygut, Kara Güne, Deli Budak, etc. This situation indicates that this nomadic tribe had become Turkish in a strong manner despite the Non-Turkish origin. Çemişkezeklü The members of this nomad group were from the people of the district of Cemiskezek connected to Tunceli. It has been stated in the resources that this nomad tribe had also Kurdish origin. This nomad group had played an insignificant role. The principal nomad groups and tribes that founded the Safevi State and constituted the main base and the major element of this state were composed of the groups and tribes stated above. The Safevi Shiite community that was composed of these nomad groups was a new Anatolian organisation. It was a community much more different than Ak-Koyunlu and Kara-Koyunlu States in respect of both the religious sects and political characteristics. Pursuant to the collapse of Kara-Koyunlu State, most or all of the nomad groups that were the members of this state were taken in the service of Ak-Koyunlu State. However, they could not acquire any first rank offices despite the fact that they had adopted the Shiah Islam. Of these people, it has been understood that Kaçar people had emigrated from the region of Boz-Ok (Yozgat) in Anatolia to the region of Gence towards the end of the century XV. In the year of 897 (1492), Ibe Sultan who was from the Ak-Koyunlu dynasty took Kaçar soldiers with him and he collaborated with Kazak Seyyidî Ali who was the governor of Alincak castle. Then, he declared Rustem who was the son of Maksud Bey that was Uzun Hasan Bey’s son. After he defeated Baysungur and Biçen oglu Suleyman Bey, he enthroned Rustem as the sovereign of the Akkoyunlu State. Ibe Sultan penetrated into Gilan with Kaçar soldiers in the following year. He destroyed the country of Karkiya Mirza Ali and annihilated most of Gilan soldiers. The reason for these actions was that the aforesaid Karkiya Mirza Ali had annihilated some Bayindirli emirs in Kazvin and Rey and had destroyed Sultaniye. When Rustem Bey was defeated by Göde Ahmet Bey in the year of 902 (1496-1467), he had taken shelter in Kaçar Bey and he asked help from him. Although Kaçar Bey had helped Rustem, Rustem was caught in the fight that took place and he was killed. It is probable that Ziyad Bey who was one of the most ancient ancestors of Kaçar dynasty must have been the leader of these Kaçar people. We have seen Piri Bey from Kaçar people among the disciples of Sheikh Hayda. Piri Bey had participated in the wars that Ismail had fought against Shirvan Shah Ferruh Yasar and the Akkoyunlu Ruler Elvend and Sultan Murad and he had shown great bravery. Moreover, Shah Ismail had entitled him with the title of Toz Koparan (Raising the Dust) due to his courage. We do not have any information about Piri Bey since the year of 909 (1503-1504). It has been understood that he was not from Ziyad Ogullari family; in fact, he was from another nomad group of Kaçar tribe. Another meir from Kaçar people was Ece Sultan. Ece Sultan had defeated Yakub Bey’s son, Sultan Murad with few forces in his command in the year of 921 (1515) and he had been entitled with the name of Kudurmuş Sultan (Rabid Sultan) by the Safevi ruler. We are not familiar with any other beys from Kaçar tribe except for these two beys in the period of Shah Ismail. It has been observed that these two beys were not higher-rank officials. This situation can be expressed with the assumption that only some of Kaçar tribe that was a crowded and important tribe had participated in the activities of Ismail. As for the Kamaranlu tribe, this nomad group had lived in Erran since the period of Kara-Koyunlu State. This tribe had taken its name from a bey named as Karaman. Accordingly, the aforesaid tribe must not have had any relation with Karaman in Anatolia. Bayram Bey and Rustem Bey who were the members of this tribe were the close fellows of Sheikh Haydar and Ismail. Pursuant to the foundation of the state, Bayram Bey was assigned as the bey of divan and upon the conquest of Khorasan, he was appointed as the governor of a wide province including Belh, Murgab, and Garcistan. He was killed in a war fought against Uzbek people in the year of 918 (1512). We are familiar with a son of Bayram Bey who was called as Muhammedi. He was killed in the war between Tekelu and Ustacalu people that took place in the year of 933 (1526-1527). Karamanli people had remained as a tribe of secondary significance during the entire Safevi history. One of the two biggest tribes of Ak-koyunlu Nation was called as Musullu (the other was Pürnek). As it has been stated before, Musullu (from Mosul) Gulabi Bey’s son Emir Bey had come from the region of Diyarbakir in the course of a military expedition of Shah Ismail towards Dulkadirli country. He had entered the presence of Safevi ruler and worn the Shiite crown. Shah Ismail who was fairly pleased with this jest had appointed him as the seal-keeper. Therefore, most of Musullu tribe had gotten into the service of Safevi state under the leadership of the grandsons of the famous bey of Uzun Hasan. There were the grandsons of Sofu Halil Bey among the Musullu beys that had been in the service of the Safevi State. Shah Ismail was married with a daughter of a Musullu bey and his eldest son, Tahmasb was born from this wedlock. Shah Ismail appointed Tahmasb as the governor of Khorasan in the year of 1516. Then, he assigned Emir Bey as the tutor of his son under the title of khanate. Emir Han was dismissed from his post in the year of (1522) and he died in the same year. The feoff (koşun) of Emir Han was given to his brother, Ibrahim Han and this emir was appointed as the governor of Baghdad. This Musullu Ibrahim Han had protected Fuzuli who was a famous poet from Bayat tribe in Baghdad. The Musullu tribe, Pürnek tribe and some other Ak-Koyunlu tribes (for example; Kazakhs) had all together constituted the tribe of Turkmen in the Safrvi resources. Since this tribe was alimented from the residuals of Ak-Koyunlu Nation in the Eastern Anatolia, it had gained a significance to the same degree with primarily the Shiite tribes and groups in the period of particularly Ismail II and Muhammed Hudabende. As for Afshar tribe; it has been known that Dana Muhammed Bey, Shah Ruh Bey and Sultan Ali Mirza were from this tribe in the period of Shah Ismail. Of these Afshar beys, Dana Muhammed Bey was shot with an arrow in the war fought against Seybek Han (1511) and he was killed thereof. The name of Shah Ruk Bey was mentioned in the second military expedition to Khorasan (1513). As for Sultan Ali Mirza; he had alleged that “I am the shah” in the Çaldiran battle and prevented the captivity and murder of Shah Ismail. The aforesaid beys had relations with Mansur Bey family.
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