Iranian Turkmen

Iranian Turkmen in Tehran-XX century

On the 13th of January in 1881 the turkmen resistance had been beaten by the czaristic military and afterward the czar became the power holder of all the turkmen area. After this czaristic victory Tehran proposed to the russian government to determine a new borders between each other. As a result of this, that agreement became the first written contract (9th December, 1881) about the new border between 2 countries (Iran and Russia), east of the Caspian Sea. But the Russian military maintained their occupation as they did before. In December 1916 the former Russian military with the help of another division, which was sent by Moscow conducted a massacre followed by looting and confescation of people valuable assets such as animals, carpts etc…

with the excuse that the turkmen people refused to send workers to support the first world wars Russian front. All these atrocities happened while Tehran just watched these crimes without any reaction.

After the October-revolution the new russian government accepted the former borders, which were determined during the czaristic colonial policy and in 1918 Lenin ordered the retreat of the military outside the borders.

Immediately, the Turkmens ceased the opportunity and organized a cultural and political movement.  They established a new local government and secular schools inspired by the European system, in which the natural sciences were also taught in turkmen language.

But the power holder (Reza Pahlavi) in Tehran, who came to power a military coup (1920) laid a plot against the autonomy.

This caused the lose of trust of the Turkmens from the Iranian basic law (1906), which includes the right of having an autonomic states.

with the excuse that the turkmen people refused to send workers to support the first orld wars Russian front. All these atrocities happened while Tehran just watched these crimes without any reaction.

 

After the October-revolution the new russian government accepted the former borders, which were determined during the czaristic colonial policy and in 1918 Lenin ordered the retreat of the military outside the borders.

Immediately, the Turkmens ceased the opportunity and organized a cultural and political movement.  They established a new local government and secular schools inspired by the European system, in which the natural sciences were also taught in turkmen language.

But the power holder (Reza Pahlavi) in Tehran, who came to power a military coup (1920) laid a plot against the autonomy.

In May, the 20th of 1924 (30.02.1303) the Turkmens declared their republic and they founded their own state. Instead of acknowledging the existence of the local state according to the principles of the constitutional Revolution (1906), Tehran responded by sending three millitry divisions to wipe out any resistance.

For the first time Turkmensahra was subjugated by Tehran and that led to the closing of turkmen schools and other similar chauvinistic actions.

The nature of new political system in Russia, the USSR, changed the issue of borders between Russia and Iran to something similar to the Berlin Wall and the borders inside Germany- to a border between two camps, the socialistic and the capitalistic. The persistence of this situation during the 20th century caused much sorrow among the Turkmens of Iran and of the Turkmenic Republic.

Turkmensahra map

Turkmensahra map

During the revolution of 1979 (1357) the Turkmens expressed their demands for cultural and politicial rights with the slogan:

„Oku gerek, hat gerek, turkmence mektab gerek, elden giden yerleri gayterip almak gerek“ .

DemonstrationInGonbad

“We press for turkmen schools and the return of the lost land”. Between the downfall of the chauvinistic monarch regime, and the origin and stabilisation of the chauvinistic religious regime, the turkmen intellectuals were able to maintain an “inofficial autonomy”- known as “Doure-ye kanun wa setad”- with the support of enormous progressive forces for a year.

This came to an end through an unfair battle and an innumerable amount of crimes committed by the regime in February of 1980.

After collapsing the former USSR and terminate of cold war, into Iranian government generated reformists they were grow up as well. However this changes are not any influence in Iranian Turkmen circumstances.  So anyway  restrictions and prejudices are continued intensively.  The government distributed mazanderan province to two part and eastern part called Gulistan. Even though the majority of the population who live in this new province are Turkmen but they couldn’t  participate in higher circumstances, which take place in province. But they weren’t able to introduce the teaching of non-persian languages in school according to the basic law. Ostracism and deprivation in every affairs sighted evidently.  For example in this new province (Gulestan) the parliament constituency was organised so that the Turkemanian people are in minority and the result of election ended with supremacy of Persian speakers.

  As a matter of facts it’s only natural that the Turkmens keep on struggling for their rights such as other minorities.  The effort  of the Turkmen and other suppressed national minorities for their rights is immediately connected to the longing for freedom,  democracy and human rights in Iran, in that region and in the world.

Cultural and Solidary Union of Iranian Turkmens

2010-02-14