Incr EAST: The structure of S&R in Turkmenistan reflects the reforms taking place in the country, which were initiated by the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdymuhamedov. With the revival of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan in 2009, a center of research activity was generated, which has united in itself a variety of institutes and scientists conducting both fundamental and applied research. The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan is the state institution insuring an integrated scientific and technical policy approach in the country, accelerating advanced achievements in science, fostering all-round development, and also introducing constant and effective government programs for scientific and technical development. The Academy of Sciences is financed out of the state budget of Turkmenistan.
Together with the Academy of Sciences, the management of S&R remains in the branch ministries and departments with their subordinated scientific research institutes.
The main role in the development of research activity is carried out by universities and institutions, where scientific developments are carried out in departments and laboratories. Some institutes, which are carrying out strategic researches and developments under government tasks, are directly subordinated to the Cabinet of Turkmenistan.
Thanks to the reforms carried out in the country and the creation of a legal base, small-scale enterprises of public and private centers began to be involved in research activity, carrying out advisory services for international programs.
Structure of Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan
The national Academy of Sciences has been restored according to the resolution of the President of Turkmenistan №10458 dated June, 12th 2009, titled «About questions of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan», which has headed all activity on development and science organisation in Turkmenistan.
According to the resolution under the authority of the Academy of Sciences 11 institutes and the 3 organisations serving the science sector have been moved: the library, the printing house and the publishing house “Ylym”. The President of Academy, the Dr., Professor Mezilov G. A. heads Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan.
The Presidium supervises the work of the Academy of Sciences, which is composed of: the President of Academy of Sciences, the Vice-President, the Main Scientific Secretary and Academicians, and the secretaries who are simultaneously chiefs of departments.
The Presidium structure is graphically reflected in table 1.
The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan has the following functional structure. As a part of the Academy there are management departments:
- Humanitarian and economic sciences department;
- Physical and mathematical, chemical, geological and engineering sciences department;
- Medical, biological and agricultural sciences department,
and also divisions:
- High technologies and innovations division;
- Division of the international relations;
- Postgraduate study division;
- National scientifically-educational Internet center;
- Branch archive of scientific institutions and enterprises;
- Financial and economic division;
- Magazine edition «Science and technics in Turkmenistan»;
- Administrative division;
- Personnel division.
The structure of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan comprises the following scientific research institutes and organisations:
Management structure of research activity in branches
Research activity in branches is carried out on thematic priorities of the ministries and departments in corresponding scientific research institutes. The branch structure of scientific institutions looks as it is presented in the diagram below:
Scientific research in the field of humanitarian and social sciences is also conducted at institutes, whose management is carried out by the Cabinet of Turkmenistan. Such institutes are:
- the National Institute of Democracy and Human Rights at the President of Turkmenistan;
- the Institute of State and Law of Turkmenistan at the President of Turkmenistan;
the State Institute of a Cultural Heritage of the People of Turkmenistan, Central Asia and the East of the President of Turkmenistan;
- the Institute of Strategic Planning and Economic Development.
The management of high school science is carried out by the Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan. Scientific research in high schools is carried out by the collective of the faculty, post-graduate students, doctoral candidates, applicants and students. Results of researches become a subject of discussions at annual conferences and seminars conducted in each high school. Since 2008 new institutes and universities have begun to open, thanks to reforms in the sphere of education conducted by the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdymuhamedov. The opening of further new high schools is planned as well. The dynamics of increase of the number of high schools is presented in the diagram below.
Source: Statistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan for 2011
Now high school research activities are concentrated in the following institutions:
four universities: Turkmen State University after Magtymkuly, Turkmen Agricultural University after S.A. Niyazov; International Turkmen-Turkish University, Turkmen State Medical University;
three educational academies – Academy of Civil Servants under the President of Turkmenistan, Academy of Arts and Academy of Police;
institutes: Institute of International Relations;the Military Institute; Military and Sea Institute; Institute of Culture; Institute of World Languages; Institute of Economy and Management;Financial Institute; Institute of Transport and Communication; Institute of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism; National Conservatory; Pedagogical Institute; Polytechnic Institute; Energy Institute; Branch of Moscow Institute of Oil and Gas after Gubkin;
- Agricultural Institute.
Doctors and candidates of sciences are actively involved in the research activity of high schools. Despite available sectoral management of scientific research, high school, academic scientific research and research on manufacture are closely interconnected, which causes a constant overflow of scientific personnel from one branch to another. Comparative charts of the number of science officers with a scientific degree in scientific institutions are presented below (see charts 1 and 2).
Chart 1.Number of Doctors of Sciencein branches of scientific activity by years, persons:
Source: Statistical Yearbooks of Turkmenistan :2007,2008, 2009,2011
Chart 2.Number of candidates of sciences in branches of scientifically research activity by years, persons:
Source: Statistical Yearbooks of Turkmenistan: 2007,2008, 2009,2011
The presented charts show the steady tendency to increase the number of science officers in research institutions, which takes place at the expense of inflow of personnel from other branches and of the young generation of science officers.
Source: undisclosed expert known to the editor
Last update: March 2012